Arabic alphabet


William Massey The marvellous faculty of writing has led various races to attribute its origin to the gods. Assyrian, Egyptian, Chinese, Indian, and Scandinavian deities have all been held to have given man knowledge of writing. The very beginnings of our writing are now thought to be indicated by the pictures made by prehistoric man whose artistic skill is evident in caves in Spain and France dating between 20, and 35, BC. First came the drawing of a thing and then the abbreviated and conventionalised drawing used as a sign pictograph. A later stage is when the drawing or sign represents an idea ideograph ; for instance, the sign for sun might represent day. Eventually the sign becomes a sound-symbol and indicates the sound of a word or a syllable, and finally the sound of a letter. The last of these stages is that triumph of the mind – the invention of the alphabet, the means by which the combination of a few symbols may represent any spoken word. The oldest materials on which deciphered script has been found are the tables of stone and fired-clay from the Sumerian settlements some 5, years ago. These tables, consisting of administrative and accounting records, are covered by what is known as cuneiform script. Papyrus was used for writing on years ago in Egypt and its use spread slowly throughout the Mediterranean basin where it remained the main material for writing on until the IVth century AD.

Greek alphabet

Some of the mid ‘s straight guage frames had serial numbers starting with a single letter which was towards the end of the alphabet. This new system applied to the high-end i. Reynolds frames, and involved the placing of a character at the beginning of the serial number. The character began at the start of the alphabet, and indicated year of manufacture. Detail about the numerals that follow the alphabet are sketchy, and are presumably sequential serial numbers of some kind.

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Melissa 13 comments Often considered one of the more difficult languages to master thanks to the incredible amount of inconsistencies in the language, it should come as no surprise that the development of the modern English alphabet involved several languages, hundreds of years and a variety of conquers, missionaries and scholars. Origins of Alphabetic Writing Dating back nearly four thousand years, early alphabetic writing, as opposed to other early forms of writing like cuneiform which employed the use of different wedge shapes or hieroglyphics which primarily used pictographic symbols , relied on simple lines to represent spoken sounds.

Scholars attribute its origin to a little known Proto-Sinatic , Semitic form of writing developed in Egypt between and BC. Building on this ancient foundation, the first widely used alphabet was developed by the Phoenicians about seven hundred years later. The Greeks built on the Phoenician alphabet by adding vowels sometime around BC. Both were used throughout the Middle Ages, although they were considered a single letter until quite recently. With ties to Scandinavia and other North Seas cultures, ancient Anglo-Saxon writing, called futhorc , was a runic language.

Flexible, new runes were routinely added such that, although it first appeared in England with 26 characters, by the time of its demise by the 11th century AD , it had In the seventh century AD, the Latin alphabet introduced by Christian missionaries had begun to take hold. The ampersand and five uniquely English letters, designated ond, wynn, thorn, eth and ash, were included. As far from Modern English as Public Enemy , Old English continues to be taught in high schools and colleges when our young people are forced to grapple with things like Beowulf translated: By the 13th century when writing in English began to become more prominent again, the language reflected two centuries of Norman rule.

This form of the language, called Middle English, while still difficult at times, is comprehensible to the modern English reader.

Military Alphabet: Introduction

Yiddish was the language of Ashkenazic Jews, but not Sephardic Jews Yiddish is based on German, Hebrew and other languages Yiddish uses an alphabet based on Hebrew There are standards for transliterating Yiddish Yiddish was criticized as a barrier to assimilation Yiddish developed rich literature, theater and music S’iz shver tsu zayn a Yid It’s tough to be a Jew – Yiddish folk saying [Yiddish] A hybrid of Hebrew and medieval German, Yiddish takes about three-quarters of its vocabulary from German, but borrows words liberally from Hebrew and many other languages from the many lands where Ashkenazic Jews have lived.

It has a grammatical structure all its own, and is written in an alphabet based on Hebrew characters. Scholars and universities classify Yiddish as a Germanic language, though some have questioned that classification. They had their own international language known as Ladino or Judesmo, which is a hybrid of medieval Spanish and Hebrew in much the same way that Yiddish combines German and Hebrew.

Runic alphabet: Runic alphabet, writing system of uncertain origin used by Germanic peoples of northern Europe, Britain, Scandinavia, and Iceland from about the 3rd century to the 16th or 17th century ad. Runic writing appeared rather late in the history of writing and is clearly derived from one of .

Bibliography of Sources for Further Study An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. The Celtic people have mystified anthropologists and historians for generations. They were a non literate culture whose history and literature was preserved through oral tradition. The only written records of their civilization are the texts left by classical authors, the first of which appear circa BCE.

These accounts, inaccurate as they may be, are important in that they demonstrate that the Celts came into cultural contact, and sometimes competition, with the Greeks as well as the Romans. In recent years, modern archeology has been successful in reconstructing an echo of the “voice” of the ancient Celts. Facets of Celtic society, economy, and religion completely ignored by Classical texts have been brought to light.

The classical image of Celtic life describes barbaric men and women dressed in uncured animal skins in primitive villages, people who worshipped strange deities and whose lives were consumed in blood feuds. Because of the authority of the classical authors, these ancient misconceptions were pervasive.

Greek alphabet

The largest number of scholars favours the Latin alphabet as this template, [9] [10] although the Elder Futhark and even the Greek alphabet have their supporters. The Latin alphabet is the primary contender mainly because its influence at the required period 4th century is most easily established, being widely used in neighbouring Roman Britannia , while the runes in the 4th century were not very widespread even in continental Europe. In Ireland and in Wales, the language of the monumental stone inscriptions is termed Primitive Irish.

The transition to Old Irish , the language of the earliest sources in the Latin alphabet, takes place in about the 6th century. Theories of origin[ edit ] Fol.

Yiddish was the international language of Jews from Central and Eastern Europe until the middle of the 20th century. Learn about the history of the Yiddish language, as well as its alphabet.

Subscribe To Our Newsletter! Let’s try your email address again! They were, at the time, writing with a set of hieroglyphs that were used both as representations of the consonants of their language and as logographs a logograph or logogram is a letter, symbol, or sign used to represent an entire word. Over the next few centuries, this alphabet spread through the rest of the Middle East and into Europe.

Almost all subsequent alphabets in the Western world have either descended from it, or been inspired by or adapted from one of its descendants. The first people to extensively use the alphabet as it emerged from Egypt were the Phoenicians, who ruled a small empire of maritime city-states and colonies around the Mediterranean. The Greeks borrowed the Phoenician alphabet sometime in the 8th century BC or earlier, keeping the order and adapting it for use with their own language.

For example, the Phoenician alphabet did not have letters representing vowel sounds, which were important in the Greek language and had to be added.

Lettering – A brief history

No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time. The term runes is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and Greek letters. It is attested on a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runa and possibly as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone.

Remarkable new evidence discovered by Dr. Douglas Petrovich may change how the world understands the origins of the alphabet and who first wrote the Bible. As to be expected, his controversial proposals have ignited contentious debate.

We do not intend to become one. We are still trying to do things other people think are crazy but we are super excited about. But in the technology industry, where revolutionary ideas drive the next big growth areas, you need to be a bit uncomfortable to stay relevant. Our company is operating well today, but we think we can make it cleaner and more accountable.

So we are creating a new company, called Alphabet. Alphabet is mostly a collection of companies. The largest of which, of course, is Google. This newer Google is a bit slimmed down, with the companies that are pretty far afield of our main internet products contained in Alphabet instead. What do we mean by far afield? Good examples are our health efforts:

Determining the Age of a Raleigh

May 16, No reproduction without permission The earliest example of our alphabet — a possible mnemonic phrase that helped someone remember “ABCD” — has been discovered on a 3, year-old inscribed piece of limestone from ancient Egypt , a scholar believes. Three of the words start with the ancient equivalent of B, C and D, creating what may be a mnemonic phrase. This discovery “would be the first historical attestation of ‘our’ alphabet sequence,” he told Live Science in an email.

Modern-day scholars sometimes call the early ancestor of our ABCD alphabet sequence the “abgad” sequence, because this phrase mentions some of the first letters of the early version of our alphabet.

Have you ever watched a war film and wondered, “What’s a Foxtrot? Who is Charlie? Did someone say Tango?” These unusual words belong to a powerful code language known as the Military Alphabet. Servicemen and women use this language to improve clarity of communication, and sometimes as a form of slang. The military alphabet, officially [ ].

Dipylon jug, Lefkandi Pithekoussai Greek. Das Buch der Schrift. Imprimerie Nationale de France. The universal history of numbers: The antiquity of the Greek alphabet and the early Phoenician scripts. Homer and the origin of the Greek alphabet. The story of writing.

Patron Saints: L

Greek diacritics In the polytonic orthography traditionally used for ancient Greek, the stressed vowel of each word carries one of three accent marks: These signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent , and thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech ever since.

In addition to the accent marks, every word-initial vowel must carry either of two so-called “breathing marks”: This system of diacritics was first developed by the scholar Aristophanes of Byzantium c. It uses only a single accent mark, the acute also known in this context as tonos, i.

Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are also known as futhark or fuþark (derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K); the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or.

Use in the Armed Forces You may have noticed that many english letters sound similar. For most of us, this sort of error might cause a mislabeled package shipment or a misspelled dinner invitation. However, for a soldier or fighter pilot, a misheard command or radio signal can mean life or death. Therefore, radio operators in the armed services often rely on the military alphabet when sending codes or relaying important information.

This ensures clear communication, regardless of background noise or radio interference. Some popular expressions include: Use Outside the Military Military alphabet has also proven a very useful tool in civilian life. Here are just a few examples: This is to avoid confusion with Delta Airlines. This is sometimes known as the Aviation Alphabet.

Earliest Version of Our Alphabet Possibly Discovered

Z What is a patron saint? Patron saints are chosen as special protectors or guardians over areas of life. These areas can include occupations, illnesses, churches, countries, causes — anything that is important to us. The earliest records show that people and churches were named after apostles and martyrs as early as the fourth century.

Lettering – A brief history. Whence did the wond’rous mystic art arise, Of painting SPEECH, and speaking to the eyes? That we by tracing magic lines are taught.

Early, or Common, Germanic Teutonic , used in northern Europe before about ad; Anglo-Saxon, or Anglian, used in Britain from the 5th or 6th century to about the 12th century ad; and Nordic, or Scandinavian, used from the 8th to about the 12th or 13th century ad in Scandinavia and Iceland. After the 12th century, runes were still used occasionally for charms and memorial inscriptions until the 16th or 17th century, chiefly in Scandinavia.

The sounds of the first six letters were f, u, th, a, r, and k, respectively, giving the alphabet its name: The Anglo-Saxon script added letters to the futhark to represent sounds of Old English that did not occur in the languages that had used the Early Germanic script. Anglo-Saxon had 28 letters, and after about ad it had There were also some slight differences in letter shape. The Scandinavian languages were even richer in sounds than Old English; but, instead of adding letters to the futhark to represent the new sounds, the users of the Nordic script compounded the letter values, using the same letter to stand for more than one sound—e.

This practice eventually resulted in the reduction of the futhark to 16 letters. More than 4, runic inscriptions and several runic manuscripts are extant. Approximately 2, of these come from Sweden , the remainder being from Norway , Denmark and Schleswig, Britain, Iceland, various islands off the coast of Britain and Scandinavia, and other countries of Europe, including France, Germany, Ukraine, and Russia.

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A Song for Each Letter of the Alphabet ( A to Z )

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